Toothpaste is a staple in oral hygiene routines worldwide. It plays a crucial role in maintaining oral health and preventing various dental issues. From its humble beginnings as a simple mixture of baking soda and hydrogen peroxide, toothpaste has evolved into a diverse range of formulations catering to specific needs. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the science behind toothpaste, explore its various types, and uncover the multitude of benefits it offers.


Historical Evolution of Toothpaste

The historical evolution of toothpaste traces back thousands of years when early civilizations recognized the importance of oral hygiene. While the formulations and ingredients varied across different cultures and time periods, the goal remained the same: to clean the teeth and freshen breath.

Ancient Egyptians were among the first to develop rudimentary toothpaste around 5000 BC. Their toothpaste recipes included ingredients such as crushed eggshells, pumice, myrrh, and powdered ashes. The Greeks and Romans also adopted tooth-cleaning practices, using mixtures containing crushed bones, oyster shells, and charcoal.

During the 9th century, the Persian scholar Rhazes wrote about a toothpaste recipe that included salt, pepper, and burnt shells. In the 10th century, an Arabian dentist named Abulcasis recommended a toothpaste consisting of powdered rock salt, dried iris flowers, and mint.

In China, during the Tang Dynasty (7th-10th century AD), a toothpaste-like substance called “chewing sticks” gained popularity. These sticks were made from aromatic tree twigs and were rubbed against the teeth to clean them.

The development of modern toothpaste began in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the late 18th century, British physician and dentist Dr. John Baker added glycerin to toothpaste, which improved its texture and helped it adhere to the toothbrush. In the early 19th century, toothpaste made from chalk, soap, and crushed charcoal gained popularity.

Key breakthroughs and advancements leading to modern toothpaste

The breakthrough in toothpaste development came in the late 19th century with the introduction of fluoride. In the 1890s, Dr. Washington Wentworth Sheffield introduced the first toothpaste containing fluoride, which was known for its remarkable ability to prevent tooth decay.

Over the years, toothpaste formulations continued to evolve, incorporating new ingredients and improving their effectiveness. The 20th century witnessed advancements in the production and marketing of toothpaste. Major oral care companies emerged, introducing various formulations and flavors to cater to different consumer preferences.

Today, toothpaste formulations are highly sophisticated and encompass a wide range of active ingredients and benefits. From fluoride toothpaste for cavity prevention to whitening toothpaste for removing stains, consumers have an array of options to address their specific oral health needs.

The historical evolution of toothpaste highlights humanity’s enduring quest for oral hygiene. From ancient civilizations’ crude toothpaste mixtures to the advanced formulations available today, toothpaste has come a long way in promoting oral health and maintaining beautiful smiles.


Composition of Toothpaste

The composition of toothpaste consists of various ingredients carefully selected to achieve specific functions, including cleaning the teeth, freshening breath, and promoting oral health. While formulations may vary among different brands and types of toothpaste, there are common ingredients found in most toothpaste products. Here are the key components typically found in toothpaste:

  • Abrasives
  • Fluoride
  • Humectants
  • Detergents
  • Binders and Thickeners
  • Flavoring Agents
  • Sweeteners
  • Preservatives



Toothpaste contains abrasive particles that aid in the mechanical removal of plaque and surface stains from the teeth. Common abrasives include calcium carbonate, hydrated silica, and aluminum hydroxide. These particles are effective in polishing the tooth enamel without causing excessive wear or damage.


One of the most crucial components of toothpaste is fluoride. It helps prevent tooth decay by strengthening the tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria and sugars. Sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate, and stannous fluoride are commonly used fluoride compounds in toothpaste.


Humectants such as glycerin and sorbitol are added to toothpaste to maintain its texture and prevent it from drying out. They also help in the even distribution of the toothpaste and enhance its ability to adhere to the toothbrush.


Foaming agents or detergents like sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) are included in toothpaste to create the familiar foaming action when brushing. Detergents help dislodge food particles and debris from the teeth, providing a cleaner feeling. However, some individuals may be sensitive to SLS and may opt for SLS-free toothpaste.

Binders and Thickeners

Binders such as carrageenan and xanthan gum are used to give toothpaste its cohesive texture. Thickeners, including cellulose gum and sodium alginate, help maintain the proper consistency of the toothpaste and prevent it from separating.

Flavoring Agents

Toothpaste is often flavored to enhance the overall brushing experience. Common flavors include mint, spearmint, peppermint, and various fruit flavors. Flavoring agents also contribute to freshening breath after brushing.


To improve taste, toothpaste may contain sweeteners such as saccharin or sorbitol. These sweeteners add a pleasant flavor to toothpaste without promoting tooth decay.


Preservatives like sodium benzoate or methylparaben are included in toothpaste to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi, ensuring the product’s shelf life and safety.

In addition to these primary ingredients, toothpaste may also contain additional active ingredients based on its specific purpose. For example, desensitizing toothpaste may contain potassium nitrate or strontium chloride to reduce tooth sensitivity, while whitening toothpaste may include hydrogen peroxide or abrasives designed to remove surface stains.

It’s important to note that individuals with specific oral health concerns, allergies, or sensitivities should carefully review the ingredient list of toothpaste products and consult with their dentist if necessary to choose the most suitable option for their needs.


Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of action of toothpaste involves various processes that work together to promote oral health, prevent dental issues, and maintain a clean and fresh mouth. Let’s explore the key elements of toothpaste’s mechanism of action:

  • Mechanical Cleaning
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Plaque and Tartar Control
  • Desensitization
  • Freshening Breath
  • Enzymatic Action


Mechanical Cleaning

Toothpaste contains abrasives such as calcium carbonate or silica particles, which assist in the mechanical cleaning of the teeth. When we brush our teeth, these abrasives help remove plaque, food particles, and surface stains from the tooth surfaces. The gentle scrubbing action of toothpaste, coupled with the brushing motion, helps dislodge and physically remove debris and bacteria from the teeth.

Chemical Reactions

Toothpaste often contains active ingredients that participate in chemical reactions to benefit oral health. For instance, fluoride compounds like sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate found in toothpaste react with the tooth enamel. Fluoride helps to remineralize weakened areas of enamel, making teeth more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria and sugars, and thus preventing tooth decay.

Plaque and Tartar Control

Toothpaste formulations may include antimicrobial agents such as triclosan or zinc citrate. These agents help control the growth of bacteria in the mouth, particularly the bacteria responsible for plaque formation. By reducing the bacterial load, toothpaste helps prevent the accumulation of plaque, a sticky film that can lead to tooth decay and gum diseases. Additionally, certain toothpaste products designed for tartar control may contain pyrophosphates, which help inhibit the mineralization of plaque, reducing the formation of hard tartar deposits.


Some toothpaste formulations target tooth sensitivity. These toothpastes often contain active ingredients like potassium nitrate or strontium chloride. These compounds work by either blocking nerve impulses or forming a protective layer on the exposed dentin, helping to alleviate tooth sensitivity to hot, cold, or acidic stimuli.

Freshening Breath

Toothpaste contains flavoring agents such as mint or spearmint, which contribute to a fresh and pleasant taste. Moreover, toothpaste helps eliminate odor-causing bacteria and neutralize volatile sulfur compounds responsible for bad breath. This, combined with the physical removal of food particles and bacteria during brushing, helps maintain fresh breath.

Enzymatic Action

Some toothpaste formulations include enzymes such as papain or bromelain. These enzymes help break down and remove extrinsic stains from the surface of the teeth. They work by breaking the chemical bonds of the stain molecules, assisting in the removal of discoloration and contributing to a brighter smile.

It’s important to note that while toothpaste plays a vital role in maintaining oral health, it should be used in conjunction with proper brushing technique, regular dental check-ups, and a comprehensive oral care routine. Brushing twice a day, for at least two minutes each time, and using the appropriate amount of toothpaste recommended by dental professionals ensures maximum effectiveness and benefits from the toothpaste’s mechanisms of action.


Types of Toothpaste

Toothpastes can be divided in five categories:

  1. Fluoride toothpaste
  2. Whitening toothpaste
  3. Desensitizing toothpaste
  4. Natural toothpaste
  5. Speciality toothpaste


Fluoride Toothpaste

Fluoride toothpaste is one of the most commonly used types of toothpaste and is widely recommended by dental professionals for maintaining optimal oral health. Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral that offers significant benefits in preventing tooth decay and promoting dental strength. Here’s a deeper look at fluoride toothpaste:

  • Importance of Fluoride
  • Prevention of Tooth Decay
  • Cavity Reduction
  • Benefits for Different Age Groups
  • Fluoride Levels in Toothpaste
  • Safety Considerations
  • Professional Application


Importance of Fluoride

Fluoride plays a crucial role in strengthening tooth enamel, the outer protective layer of the teeth. It helps remineralize weakened enamel and makes it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria and sugars in the mouth. This process, known as remineralization, helps repair early stages of tooth decay and prevents the development of cavities.

Prevention of Tooth Decay

The primary benefit of fluoride toothpaste is its ability to prevent tooth decay. When fluoride is applied to the teeth, it combines with the minerals in the enamel, forming a stronger and more acid-resistant structure. This makes it more difficult for harmful bacteria to demineralize the tooth enamel and initiate the decay process.

Cavity Reduction

Fluoride toothpaste has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of cavities, particularly when used consistently and in conjunction with proper oral hygiene practices. Regular brushing with fluoride toothpaste helps remove plaque, bacteria, and food particles from the teeth, minimizing the chances of acid production and enamel erosion that lead to cavities.

Benefits for Different Age Groups

Fluoride toothpaste benefits individuals of all ages. For children, fluoride is crucial during the formation and development of their permanent teeth. Children’s toothpaste typically contains a lower concentration of fluoride to ensure safe and effective use. For adults, fluoride toothpaste continues to provide protection against tooth decay and strengthens the teeth throughout their lifetime.

Fluoride Levels in Toothpaste

Fluoride toothpaste comes in various strengths, typically expressed as parts per million (ppm) of fluoride. The concentration of fluoride in toothpaste ranges from 1,000 ppm to 1,500 ppm or more. Dental professionals may recommend different fluoride concentrations based on individual needs and risk factors for tooth decay.

Safety Considerations

Fluoride toothpaste is safe and effective when used as directed. However, it is essential to exercise caution, particularly with young children. Parents should supervise their children’s brushing to ensure they use an appropriate amount of toothpaste and avoid excessive swallowing. Ingesting large amounts of fluoride toothpaste can lead to a condition called fluorosis, which causes tooth discoloration. Consulting with a dentist or pediatrician about the appropriate amount of fluoride toothpaste for children is recommended.

Professional Application

In some cases, dental professionals may recommend additional fluoride treatments, such as fluoride varnishes or rinses, for individuals at higher risk of tooth decay. These treatments provide an extra dose of fluoride to strengthen the teeth and provide targeted protection.

Fluoride toothpaste is an essential tool in maintaining optimal oral health and preventing tooth decay. Regular and consistent use, along with proper brushing technique and regular dental check-ups, can help maximize the benefits of fluoride toothpaste and promote a healthy smile for a lifetime.


Whitening Toothpaste

Whitening toothpaste is a popular choice among individuals seeking to achieve a brighter, more radiant smile. It is specifically formulated to remove surface stains and discoloration from the teeth, resulting in a whiter appearance. Here are some key aspects to understand about whitening toothpaste:

  • Surface Stain Removal
  • Abrasives and Chemical Agents
  • Peroxide-Based Whiteners
  • Effectiveness
  • Limitations
  • Safety Considerations
  • Maintenance and Long-Term Use


Surface Stain Removal

Whitening toothpaste primarily focuses on the removal of extrinsic stains, which are stains that accumulate on the outer surface of the teeth. These stains can be caused by factors such as consumption of coffee, tea, red wine, tobacco use, and certain foods.

Abrasives and Chemical Agents

Whitening toothpaste often contains mild abrasives or chemical agents that help in the removal of surface stains. The abrasive particles gently polish the tooth enamel, effectively scrubbing away stains and discoloration. Common abrasive ingredients in whitening toothpaste include hydrated silica, calcium carbonate, and baking soda.

Peroxide-Based Whiteners

Some whitening toothpaste formulations may also contain peroxide-based whitening agents. Hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide are the active ingredients in these toothpastes. Peroxide-based whiteners can help bleach the teeth and lighten the intrinsic stains, which are stains that exist within the tooth structure. However, the concentration of peroxide in toothpaste is significantly lower than in professional whitening treatments.


Whitening toothpaste can be effective in removing mild surface stains and brightening the teeth to some extent. However, it is important to manage expectations, as the results may vary depending on the severity of the stains and the individual’s oral hygiene habits. Whitening toothpaste is generally more effective on extrinsic stains rather than intrinsic stains.


It’s important to note that whitening toothpaste has limitations. It may not be as effective in treating deep or stubborn stains, such as those caused by long-term tobacco use or certain medications. Additionally, whitening toothpaste cannot change the natural color of the teeth or address underlying issues such as tooth decay or enamel erosion.

Safety Considerations

Whitening toothpaste is generally safe to use as directed. However, some individuals may experience tooth sensitivity or gum irritation or gum recession as a result of the abrasive nature of the toothpaste or the whitening agents. It is advisable to follow the instructions on the packaging and discontinue use if any adverse reactions occur. If you have concerns about tooth sensitivity or wish to pursue more significant whitening results, consulting with a dental professional is recommended.

Maintenance and Long-Term Use

Whitening toothpaste is often used as part of a maintenance regimen to help preserve the results achieved through professional teeth whitening or other whitening treatments. Regular and consistent use of whitening toothpaste, combined with good oral hygiene practices, can help minimize the accumulation of surface stains and maintain a brighter smile over time.

It’s important to remember that maintaining good oral hygiene, including regular brushing, flossing, and professional dental cleanings, is essential for overall oral health. Consulting with a dentist can provide personalized guidance on the most appropriate whitening options based on individual needs and expectations.


Desensitizing Toothpaste

Desensitizing toothpaste, also known as desensitizing or sensitivity toothpaste, is specifically formulated to help alleviate tooth sensitivity. Tooth sensitivity is a common dental condition characterized by discomfort or pain when the teeth are exposed to certain stimuli, such as hot or cold temperatures, sweet or acidic foods, or brushing.

Here are some important points to understand about desensitizing toothpaste:

  • Mechanism of Action
  • Relief from Tooth Sensitivity
  • Usage and Application
  • Considerations and Precautions


Mechanism of Action

Desensitizing toothpaste works through several mechanisms to help reduce tooth sensitivity:

  • Desensitizing Agents
  • Occlusion of Dentinal Tubules
  • Toothpaste Consistency


Desensitizing Agents

These toothpastes often contain active ingredients like potassium nitrate, strontium chloride, or stannous fluoride. These agents help block or inhibit nerve transmission, reducing the sensitivity signals from reaching the nerves in the teeth.

Occlusion of Dentinal Tubules

Dentin, the layer beneath the tooth enamel, contains tiny tubules that connect to the nerve endings of the tooth. When dentin becomes exposed, these tubules allow external stimuli to reach the nerves, causing sensitivity. Desensitizing toothpaste may contain ingredients like fluoride or calcium phosphate, which help occlude or block the tubules, reducing the transmission of sensitivity signals.

Toothpaste Consistency

Some desensitizing toothpaste formulations have a thicker consistency. This thickness helps create a protective layer on the teeth, providing a barrier against external stimuli and reducing sensitivity.

Relief from Tooth Sensitivity

Regular use of desensitizing toothpaste can provide relief from tooth sensitivity over time. It is important to note that the effectiveness of desensitizing toothpaste may vary from person to person, and it may take several weeks of consistent use to experience significant improvement. Individuals with severe or persistent tooth sensitivity should consult a dental professional for a thorough evaluation and personalized treatment recommendations.

Usage and Application

To achieve the best results with desensitizing toothpaste, it is important to follow the instructions provided. Typically, it is recommended to brush with the desensitizing toothpaste twice a day or as directed by a dental professional. It is important to use a soft-bristled toothbrush and a gentle brushing technique to avoid further irritation to sensitive teeth.

Considerations and Precautions

While desensitizing toothpaste is generally safe for use, there are some considerations and precautions to keep in mind:

  • Underlying Dental Issues
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Professional Assessment


Underlying Dental Issues

Tooth sensitivity can be a symptom of underlying dental problems such as tooth decay, gum disease, or tooth fractures. It is essential to consult with a dental professional to identify and address any underlying issues causing sensitivity.

Allergic Reactions

Some individuals may be allergic or sensitive to certain ingredients in desensitizing toothpaste. If any adverse reactions occur, such as gum swelling or rash, it is advisable to discontinue use and consult a dental professional.

Professional Assessment

If tooth sensitivity persists or worsens despite using desensitizing toothpaste, it is important to seek professional dental care. A dental professional can evaluate the cause of sensitivity and recommend appropriate treatments or interventions.

Desensitizing toothpaste can be an effective tool in managing tooth sensitivity and improving oral comfort. However, it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices, including regular dental check-ups, to ensure overall oral health. Consulting with a dental professional can provide personalized advice and guidance on managing tooth sensitivity effectively.


Natural Toothpaste

Natural toothpaste, also known as organic or herbal toothpaste, is a type of toothpaste that is formulated with ingredients derived from natural sources. It is designed to provide oral care while minimizing the use of synthetic chemicals or additives. Here are some key points to understand about natural toothpaste:

  • Ingredients
  • Chemical-Free Formulations
  • Limited Foam and Sudsing
  • Ecological Considerations
  • Efficacy and Limitations
  • Personal Preference and Sensitivities



Natural toothpaste typically contains ingredients sourced from nature, such as plant extracts, essential oils, and minerals. Common ingredients found in natural toothpaste may include:

  • Herbal Extracts
  • Essential Oils
  • Mineral Agents
  • Natural Sweeteners


Herbal Extracts

Natural toothpaste may include extracts from herbs like chamomile, sage, or aloe vera, which are known for their soothing and anti-inflammatory properties.

Essential Oils

Essential oils like peppermint, spearmint, tea tree, or cinnamon are often used to provide a pleasant flavor and fresh breath. Some essential oils also have antimicrobial properties that can help combat bacteria in the mouth.

Mineral Agents

Natural toothpaste may contain mineral agents like baking soda, calcium carbonate, or bentonite clay. These ingredients help with gentle cleaning and polishing of the teeth, removing surface stains and plaque.

Natural Sweeteners

Instead of artificial sweeteners, natural toothpaste may use sweeteners like xylitol, which is derived from plants and can help inhibit the growth of bacteria in the mouth.

Chemical-Free Formulations

Natural toothpaste aims to minimize the use of synthetic chemicals, artificial colors, flavors, and preservatives commonly found in conventional toothpaste. It often avoids ingredients such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), parabens, triclosan, and artificial sweeteners like saccharin.

Limited Foam and Sudsing

Natural toothpaste formulations may have less foam and suds compared to conventional toothpaste. This is because they do not contain SLS, a foaming agent commonly used in traditional toothpaste. The absence of excessive foam does not affect the cleaning ability of natural toothpaste.

Ecological Considerations

Many natural toothpaste brands strive to be environmentally friendly by using biodegradable packaging, minimizing waste, and sourcing sustainable ingredients. Some products may be cruelty-free and not tested on animals.

Efficacy and Limitations

Natural toothpaste can effectively clean the teeth, remove plaque, and freshen breath when used properly. However, it is important to note that natural toothpaste may have different efficacy levels compared to conventional toothpaste, especially in areas such as cavity prevention, enamel strengthening, and tartar control. The specific effectiveness may vary depending on the brand and formulation.

Personal Preference and Sensitivities

Natural toothpaste can be a suitable option for individuals who prefer using products with fewer synthetic chemicals or have sensitivities or allergies to certain ingredients. However, it is important to check the ingredient list and consult with a dental professional if there are specific oral health concerns or conditions that need to be addressed.

It’s worth noting that natural toothpaste is not a replacement for good oral hygiene practices, such as regular brushing, flossing, and professional dental care. It is essential to choose a toothpaste that meets individual needs and preferences, while also maintaining overall oral health. Consulting with a dental professional can provide personalized guidance on selecting the most appropriate toothpaste for specific oral care needs.


Specialty Toothpaste

Specialty toothpaste refers to toothpaste formulations that target specific oral health concerns or provide unique benefits beyond basic oral hygiene. These toothpastes are designed to address specific needs and offer additional features or treatments. Here are some common types of specialty toothpaste and their respective benefits:

  • Anti-Cavity Toothpaste
  • Whitening Toothpaste
  • Desensitizing Toothpaste
  • Tartar Control Toothpaste
  • Gum Health Toothpaste
  • Natural or Herbal Toothpaste


Anti-Cavity Toothpaste

Anti-cavity toothpaste, also known as fluoride toothpaste, is the most widely used and recommended toothpaste type. It contains fluoride, a mineral that helps strengthen tooth enamel and prevent tooth decay. The fluoride in anti-cavity toothpaste promotes remineralization, which repairs early stages of tooth decay and protects against cavity formation.

Whitening Toothpaste

Whitening toothpaste is formulated to remove surface stains and enhance the whiteness of the teeth. These toothpastes often contain mild abrasives or chemical agents that help scrub away extrinsic stains caused by food, beverages, or tobacco use. While whitening toothpaste can provide some improvement in tooth color, it is important to manage expectations and understand that it may not drastically change the natural color of the teeth.

Desensitizing Toothpaste

Desensitizing toothpaste is specifically formulated to alleviate tooth sensitivity. It contains ingredients that help block or minimize the transmission of sensitivity signals from the teeth to the nerves. These toothpastes may include compounds like potassium nitrate, strontium chloride, or stannous fluoride, which help reduce discomfort or pain when exposed to hot or cold temperatures, sweet or acidic foods, or brushing.

Tartar Control Toothpaste

Tartar control toothpaste is designed to help prevent the accumulation of tartar or dental calculus on the teeth. Tartar is hardened plaque that forms when plaque remains on the teeth and mineralizes over time. These toothpastes often contain ingredients like pyrophosphates or zinc citrate, which help inhibit the formation of tartar and prevent it from adhering to the tooth surfaces.

Gum Health Toothpaste

Gum health toothpaste, also known as gum care or gum protection toothpaste, is formulated to promote gum health and combat gum diseases such as gingivitis. These toothpastes may contain antibacterial agents like triclosan, essential oils, or herbal extracts that help reduce plaque and bacteria in the mouth. They may also include ingredients that soothe gum inflammation and promote gum healing.

Natural or Herbal Toothpaste

Natural or herbal toothpaste is formulated with ingredients derived from natural sources, such as plant extracts, essential oils, and minerals. These toothpastes often avoid synthetic chemicals, artificial colors, flavors, and preservatives. They may offer benefits such as soothing properties, fresh breath, or mild whitening effects. Natural toothpaste can be a suitable option for individuals who prefer using products with fewer synthetic ingredients or have sensitivities or allergies.

It’s important to note that while specialty toothpastes can provide additional benefits, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices, including regular brushing, flossing, and professional dental care. Consulting with a dental professional can help determine the most appropriate specialty toothpaste based on individual needs and oral health conditions.


Benefits and Proper Use of Toothpaste

  1. Oral Health Maintenance
  2. Enhanced Cleaning and Stain Removal
  3. Freshening and Aesthetic Appeal
  4. Proper Toothpaste Usage


Oral Health Maintenance

  • Prevention of dental caries, gum diseases, and tooth loss.
  • Combating bad breath and promoting fresh breath.


Enhanced Cleaning and Stain Removal

  • Removing plaque, food particles, and surface stains.
  • Polishing and maintaining tooth enamel.


Freshening and Aesthetic Appeal

  • Minty flavors and breath-freshening properties.
  • The psychological impact of a pleasant toothpaste experience.


Proper Toothpaste Usage

  • Quantity, frequency, and recommended brushing techniques.
  • Choosing the right toothbrush and complementary oral care products.
  • Children’s toothpaste and oral hygiene education.



Toothpaste is undoubtedly a vital component of any oral care routine, offering numerous benefits beyond the simple act of cleaning teeth. With its wide range of formulations, toothpaste caters to specific needs, ensuring optimal oral health for individuals of all ages. By understanding the science behind toothpaste and making informed choices about the type of toothpaste that suits your needs, you can significantly contribute to maintaining a healthy smile and preventing dental issues. Remember, regular brushing with an appropriate toothpaste, combined with professional dental care, is key to achieving a lifelong confident and healthy smile.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.